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How to build a DIY mold containment

This will show you how to build a DIY mold containment for homeowners and contractors alike.  A lot of what we are going to say is simply intuitive and logical.  Understand that the “idea” is that you want to keep the mold spores from being distributed while you are removing them from the work area.

How to build a DIY mold containment

Here is what you will need:

Painters (blue or non marring) tape preferably 2″ wide.  Duct tape, or better Gorilla tape.  Staple gun.  6 mil clear plastic.  HEPA rated filter (any size is fine but minimum 12 x 18) I recommend a Filterete model ultra allergen 1500A N95 rated mask (preferably with a vent).  A zip wall tape zipper for building barriers.  A Tyvek suit, gloves & heavy duty contractor trash bags.  Box cutter.  Step ladder

OPTIONAL items

a zip wall pole set (expensive for a one time use) and not necessary.  Some sort of fan/filter causing air to be “drawn out” of the “contained area” to promote negative air pressure.  You can easily build one by reading our article on this here.

This is the tape/zipper that is applied to the outside of the contained area to provide secure access.  This zipper is placed on the outside of the entrance and taped onto the plastic.  Then the zipper is opened and the slit is cut.

There are video’s on the the web that show how to install a zipper.  Adjacent to the zipper in the plastic wall the “filterete filter should be cut into the plastic wall (careful to make the direction such that the air is allowed to flow INTO the containment).   After the filter is cut into the side of the wall, it should be taped with Gorilla tape on all sides to create a seal.

The images here show “zip wall” extension poles used to support the plastic onto the ceiling.  This isn’t necessary, however they are useful.  Simply first take a small piece of Gorilla tape and tape the plastic to the ceiling on one end.  Then with the staple gun tack the Gorilla tape to the ceiling and plastic.  Then go along the ceiling area and repeat this approximately every 3 lineal feet or so.  Then with your 2″ blue tape, make an air tight seal with the plastic and the ceiling, taping all along the top portions.

How to build a DIY mold containment

First off remove all personal belongings from the work space.  When you select the work space make sure that you have chosen enough room to work in and encompass the work to be performed.  Good rule of thumb, is to make it bigger than you think and use common areas of entry and exit as the exterior barrier of the work space area.  e.g. the entry door.  Decide where your entry and exit to the work space containment area will be.  It is best if you can to use a door.  Try to be sure that you have a window in the room to the outside if possible. IF you do NOT have a window in your work space it is ok, but you may want to think about venting via some 8″ air conditioning duct to the outside.  If you do this then you will have to cut into your containment area and tape around that and run it outside.  Again much easier to simply have a window.

Tape an air tight seal on the ceiling and on the flooring where the plastic meets the ground.  Depending upon the surface you are working on (carpeting, concrete, tile etc.) make sure you protect the flooring from both work damage as well as mold spores.  It is very hard to remove mold spores from carpet.  however, do NOT exacerbate this getting more mold spores on your carpet.  So remove  your carpet and padding prior to the work if applicable.

Negative pressure why?

ok so you want to try to maintain negative air pressure inside of the containment room area.  This is so that when anything (mold spores, lead paint, dust, respirable particulates) that are disbursed into the air are captured and/or dispersed outdoors.  So, to do this the best way is to build yourself a HEPA filter and place that into the window inside of your containment.  First tape off the window with plastic with the window opened.  Then cut and tape the filter into the window directing the air flow OUT of the room.  Keep this filter running and this will maintain negative pressure.

Anyhow, if you have followed these instructions you should have a negative pressure containment area with flow through ventilation allowing fresh make up air to enter the room.  If you get stuck, you can always reach out to us and we will be glad to help

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    Front loading washing machines making her kids sick

    How a front loading washing machine was making her kids sick!

    Does my front load washing machine have mold?

    There are inherent design flaws in the front load washer that are simply put, impossible to mitigate.  The internal gasket that is used in all front load washers will grow mold over time.  While there are precautions you can take to minimize this issue it will inevitably happen, at least to some degree, in all front load washing machines.

     

    It is a fact that if you have a front load washing machine, it is causing mold to be on your clothes!

    Recently I visited a small home in the San Fernando Valley of a family whose children had been diagnosed with chronic sinus issues, onset of asthma, rashes, & sinusitis as well as other respiratory issues.  Our client had taken her kids, two boys ages about 5 and 8, to several doctors and specialists.  The kids had been for now a couple of years on several different medications; some of them very strong with serious side effects.  The kids were otherwise in good health, other than the respiratory issues.  The doctors were at a loss as to what to do as were the parents.  One of the doctors suggested that potentially there were environmental issues in the home that maybe impacting the kids health.  The mother of the boys was literally crying when I visited their home. AS it turns out it was the front loading washing machine was making her kids sick.

    When I arrived and inspected the home, it was almost immaculately clean!  There was no dust anywhere, and everything was clean, especially with two active young boys and their friends running around all the time.  Having raised two kids myself I was impressed at how clean her house was.

    The Mold inspection:

    The inspection:  I looked around her home for signs of water intrusion, both past and current.  Evaluated the surfaces for moisture, water damage and mold.  As in most homes, there is always some mold.  Some old water damage, a past leaking hot water heater.  A small toilet overflow in the bathroom that was repaired.  A water heater that had failed at one point, there was a small roof leak in a corner of the garage, as well as other minor issues that I could identify.  Each one of these may have to some degree have contributed to mold exposure, but nothing significant enough in my opinion to be causing enough of an exposure issue such that her kids would logically have been presenting with the severe reactions that they were.  Again most every house has some sort of mold in it.

    Does my front load washing machine have mold?

    There was definitely something wrong.  The kids were legitimately sick and not getting better.  Further they had tried several medications; some with dramatic side effects.  So this was a curious problem.  Turns out it was the washing machine!

    This is what the inside of the front load washer ring gasket looked like when examined.  Note that the molds present were considered both pathogenic and potentially toxic.  There is no way to stop this type of growth in a front loading washing machine, although you can mitigate it to some degree
    Another view of the interior of the washing machines front gasket.  The mold growth is the result of lint and other materials remaining on the inside of the ring and the constant state of moisture and humidity.  The substrate (rubber) demonstrates highly concentrated colonies of mold growth present.
    Under the microscope this is what some of the mold present looks like.  The washing machine was definitely what was making the kids sick!

     

    The washing machine was what was making the kids sick!

    Within minutes of us identifying the issue in the washing machine the mother of the two kids took action.  She called her husband who had one of his employees at the home within 5 minutes of the call; while we were still on the premises.  The employee literally removed the washing machine from the premises while we were there speaking to the woman and wrapping up our investigation in the home.

    Pro-log:

    We touched base with the home owner a month or so later and the kids were doing great!  Within about 45 days or so their symptoms were almost all gone and better still the kids were off all of the harmful medications they were taking.  After about 3 months the kids had no symptoms whatsoever and were back to running around the home like crazy, only now without stuffy noses and rashes all over their bodies!  While there was mold in several locations in the home, it was not significant enough to have the impact that the children were experiencing.  We have seen several cases similar to this all with more or less the same outcomes.  Front load washing machines should not be used in a residential environment.

    there are things you can do to clean your front load washer and to minimize this type of growth, however fundamentally, there is a design condition that will always result in this type of issue being present. Things you can do to minimize this issue are:

    1. Always leave  your front load washer door ajar when not in use.
    2. After each use, make sure you take a “clorox type” wipe (or other facsimile such as Kirkland brand household surface wipes) and completely wipe the entire inside of the ring including the lower interior portions of the ring.  Be sure to peel back the ring as shown above and wipe on the INSIDE of that ring.
    3. DO NOT USE BLEACH TO CLEAN THIS.  if you do not wish to use disposable wipes, then you can use a paper towel and regular household cleaner.
    4. after you have cleaned the inside of the ring, then wipe this down again with a dry cloth and try to get all of the moisture out of the ring.
    5. then leave the door ajar and try to dry down the ring gasket as fast as possible.

    There is a product called Concrobium which “claims” to prevent mold growth, but I personally don’t believe it. Further, as it is inside of the washer it would logically wash away over time.  you can try replacing the front door gasket but this is expensive; it cost me over $200 on my own washer before I gave up and got rid of it after I tested the new gasket and even after taking the above precautions, there was the beginnings of mold growth.  So I tossed it out.  Sorry front load washer fans.

    Ongoing litigation-

    There are current class action suits being brought against ever major manufacturer of these types of washing machines, but early signs are that the class certifications have been denied.  I would not count on these suits going anywhere.  That said, this is a real issue and it could be causing health concerns for your family the way it did for this one.

     

    Hope this article helps you.

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    How to make an inexpensive HEPA filter

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    This article will show you how to make your own DIY HEPA filter for cleaning the air inside of your home.  It is important when removing mold, that you ensure that the spores that are released during those efforts do not distribute into other areas which could cause a problem.  HEPA filtration is what is used to catch errant spores that are released in the air.  A good commercial HEPA filter costs upwards of $1,200 dollars and the filter cartridges are about $250 each give or take a bit.  As well the “pre-filters” used are expensive.  So, they are impractical for use in typical clean up activities by a homeowner.  You can’t really rent them either.  So what do you do?

    This article The intention of this filter is for any temporary clean up projects.  For the purpose of ensuring that you do not make a small problem worse, this will do the trick.

    Ok, so what does HEPA mean anyhow?

    HEPA stand for: “High-Efficiency-Particulate-arresting”  Meaning that a HEPA filter has holes in the filter that are large enough to allow air to pass, but small enough to catch 99,8% of all spores and contaminants and trap them.  Think of a screen door.  If the holes were too big insects would get into your home.  If the holes were too small, you wouldn’t be able to see through the screen which would defeat its purpose.  So, the openings are sized correctly for its purpose.  The same with a HEPA filter.[/two-thirds] [/columns_container]

    Here is what you need to make a great DIY HEPA filter.

    a typical box type fan.  A HEPA rated allergen return filter (any brand will do as long as it is allergen/or HEPA rated.  There are designations MERV ‘XX’ you may see.  Try to get a MERV 13 or higher.  The filter only needs to be large enough to cover the exhaust portion of the fan (or use 2 of them).  You can use a bigger one and cut it.  Doesn’t matter.  The important part is covering the exhaust entirely and taping that seal to the outside of the exhaust.  The last ingredient is Duct tape (no not Duck tape; but Gorilla tape works great.

    1. fit the filter(s) to the exhaust side of the fan.
    2. Tape the filters to the outside of the fan ensuring that the air that passes from the fan, is covered by the filters.  Meaning when you tape over the edges of the filter to the fan, there is no air allowed to escape from the fan that isn’t going through the filter first.
    3. place the fan ideally adjacent to where you are working and if you can, at an open window or door such that the air flow is facing OUT of the home.  if you want to be creative, you can even attach a small piece of 10 or 12″ duct material to the exhaust and then simply run that outside. Remember the air that comes OUT of the fan will be filtered, but if you create air flow drawing air from inside of the home TO the outside of the home, you have created a bit of negative pressure.  This is good because then any spores that are aerosolized during the work, will be naturally drawn into the filter and out of the home.  This will also create a stronger attraction so to say to the intake portion of the filter itself. Its complicated physics, but it works.
    4. Turn it on and viola!  A great commercial grade HEPA filter.

     

    After you have used the homemade HEPA filter and when you turn it off, take it outside immediately, remove the filters from the rear of the fan and discard them.

    A word about containment or separating the “work area”

    it is important that (even for the smallest mold project) that you separate the work area. This is an entire separate topic which I will publish something on soon.  However the basic principle is to separate off the air space in the area you are working.  You can use plastic, tape closed a door whatever.  There are many methods.  The best way is to seal off the area in plastic (sort of an isolation room if you will), then buy a zip closure from your local hardware store (about $9 dollars or so) and create your entry and exit to that isolation area.  With your homemade HEPA filter running, if you can, direct the air flow out of that work area to the outside.  Viola, now you have your own containment area and negative pressure environment to work in.  More physics.. But it works.

    You now have a very effective commercial grade HEPA filter for your clean up projects for under $60 dollars!  Renting a commercial one is over $60 dollars per day!

     

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    Case study on inaccurate air samples

     Case study on inaccurate air samples

    Location- Santa Barbara California 

    Problem:  Our case study of inaccurate air samples is centered on a home in escrow for $3.9 million dollars that was re built from the ground construction budget was $2.5 million dollars.  In connection with the escrow and proposed purchase, a mold inspection was performed by industrial hygiene company.  In their inspection they identified no problems in the home with respect to mold.  Their principal focus was NOT the investigation but to collect exhaustive air samples from inside of the home; although an inspection was performed and they could NOT identify any issues visibly.  Several air samples were collected and the results of those samples revealed severe anomalies and elevated mold spore counts in the home directly causing the prospective purchaser to cancel the transaction.   The couple who owned the home were told by the Mold inspection company that since they found such high levels of mold spores, but could not find any issues, that the only solution to solve this was to literally remove every interior wall from the framing and strip the house.  Their bid was in excess of $150,000 dollars for this work and it was estimated that replacing the removed finishes would cost between $250-350,000 dollars depending upon what materials would be used.  This is why we wrote this case study on inaccurate air samples.

    Location: Single family residence, Santa Barbara California near the ocean.

    Construction: Complete ground up, new construction.  Raised foundation single family two story home.  Ample crawl space that was observed to be damp and have strong musty odors.

    Crawlspace description/openings: The crawl space under the home contained several openings from understructure into home (“thermal bypasses”) enabling for routing air exchange between the foundation and the interior air space of the home.

    Observations in the initial report:  While the inspection appeared somewhat comprehensive with respect to sample data, there were several deficiencies in the investigation itself.  Further, the single largest issue is that the inspection company identified the substructure of the premises as being on “slab foundation” and not a suspended foundation with a crawl space.  Clearly the company (name withheld) was incorrect.

    Conclusions of their report which caused the transaction to fail:

    Our case study on inaccurate air samples shows that after not identifying any issues the hygienist elected to collect “precautionary air samples” in order to assess if there were issues in the home with respect to mold problems.   The results of the air samples collected showed several anomalies (problems) in the indoor air quality and caused the attending hygienist to conclude:

    1. “Highly elevated levels of fungi spores (mold spores) were found…”   Further, some of the spores identified were listed as;
    2. “Considered to be toxic and may cause serious health risks.”   Further in the report, the hygienist goes on to say that;
    3. “A trained professional should identify any associated water source that led to the problem”   Although the report itself did NOT identify any issues in the home nor any areas that appeared to be impacted by elevated moisture content in the building materials.
    4. “No areas of elevated moisture levels were detected at the time of the inspection.”

    Although the hygienist doing the inspection could not identify any issues, he concluded that the home was:

    UNSAFE AND CONTAMINATED!   HIGHLY ELEVATED LEVELS OF MOLD SPORES; SOME OF WHICH WERE CONSIDERED TOXIC.

    this was wrong and our case study on inaccurate air samples shows you why!

    Our analysis:

    We briefly examined the home in light of the air sample data collected and the conclusions of the report.  In examining the laboratory data collected in the previous inspection we observed that the air in the lower area of the home appeared to be significantly worse than elsewhere in the home; although all areas inside of the home appeared to be compromised.  Immediately we were able to determine that the previous hygienist incorrectly categorized the construction type of the premises as being built on slab when in fact there is a crawlspace below the lower level that spans the entire portion of the lower area of the home.  Upon examination of the crawlspace itself the area was damp, musty and in need of drying.  Further, when we examined the underside of the rooms on the lower level we identified several openings from the crawlspace up into the lower area of the home.  The openings observed were both for routing conduits as well as simple random open spaces and unsealed areas.  When openings from the crawlspace to the lower floor are present, this provides an easy path for air exchange between the crawlspace and the interior living space of the home.  Simple physics (temperature differences) causes air molecules to be attracted upwards into the interior living space of the home.

    This is an example of a typical opening observed in the understructure of the home.  There were other openings and areas in the crawlspace that enabled air exchange between the foundation and the interior of the home.

    case study on inaccurate air samples

    Our Action Plan:

    After a brief examination of the premises we concluded that indeed the reason for the elevated levels observed in the initial study was on account of the air exchange between the crawlspace and the interior of the premises.  Our mitigation plan included, but was without limitation to, the following steps:

    1)      The entire premises was professionally HEPA vacuumed using commercial grade HEPA rated HEPA vacuums.  This included all of the lower and upper areas of the home, bedrooms, bathrooms, closets, cabinet interiors and exteriors, light fixtures, detail finish work.

    2)      All horizontal surfaces and walls in the entire home were wiped with a mild surfactant to remove any dust that may have had mold spores attached.

    3)      Commercial grade 500 CFM HEPA filters were placed inside the home during the above cleaning to trap any spores released during the cleaning process.

    4)      The carpets inside the home were professionally cleaned and then again after the cleaning professionally HEPA vacuumed.

    5)      Negative pressure was established under the home in the crawlspace using 500 CFM commercial grade HEPA filters and taping off access points of the crawlspace.

    6)      Any damp moist soil turned over and/or removed from the area.  Any organic materials or soil that appeared to have organic materials in it was removed and disposed of.

    7)      The understructure was wiped down in any areas that appeared to have any physical organic material on them.  All mold present in the understructure on substrates (other than the dirt itself) was sanded, cleaned and disinfected.

    8)      All openings from the understructure up into the home were sealed off with self-expanding foam and or silicone caulk.  Larger areas where openings existed building materials that were pretreated with mold resistant sealer were applied to the openings and sealed using silicone caulk.

    9)      Understructure fans were installed inside of the crawlspace with the intent to assist in keeping the crawlspace dry and free from moisture and create negative pressure under the crawlspace which would remain constant.  This would assist in preventing any air exchange from the crawlspace into the home.

    An example of a typical patch placed on the underside of the crawlspace sealing off the opening up into the home.

    case study on inaccurate air samples

    Image of fan installation and wide view of crawlspace in the home.  Note that 3 fans were installed and air flow was directed out of the crawlspace vents on 3 sides of the foundation.

     case study on inaccurate air samples

    Our Laboratory Results:

    The air samples we collected after sealing off the openings to the crawlspace showed a dramatic improvement in the indoor air quality of the home and no abnormalities with respect to elevated mold spore counts were identified.

    case study on inaccurate air samples

    The table represents the total spores per cubic meter of air as compared to the outdoor sample collected at the time of each air quality study.  In the initial air quality study the total spore counts inside were between 107% and 318% of what was identified as present in the general atmosphere at the time of the study.  The downstairs guest room being the worst should more than 3 times the number of spores present inside the room as compared to outside.  Right behind that was the master bedroom which showed 285% of the spores found outside.  After the understructure was sealed and the openings from home into the crawlspace closed off our air study showed a dramatic increase in indoor air quality and reduction of mold spores.  In our study we found only 25% number of spores in the downstairs guest room as compared to the general atmosphere at the time.  This represents a 1260% increase in indoor air quality.  Similar dramatic increases were observed in the other rooms of the home.

    In analyzing indoor air quality, samples are collected in various rooms and an outdoor control sample is collected.  The spore counts per cubic meter of the individual samples are compared to the spore counts per cubic meter of the outdoor control sample.  As the general composition of mold/pollen spores changes day to day with atmospheric conditions you cannot simply evaluate spore counts by themselves inside of a home but rather in context with the general outdoor conditions present at the time of the sample collection.  In making a true “apples to apples” type comparison, the table above represents the analysis in context with the original control sample collected.  Both sets of air samples were processed by the same laboratory.

    Conclusions:

    The initial study did not take into account that design and construction issues that existed; namely that openings to the understructure were present allowing air exchange between the crawlspace of the home and the interior air space.  Initial air sample analysis confirm this.  After the understructure openings were sealed off and the resultant spores which had entered the home removed via thorough cleaning and the indoor air quality of the home showed to be in good condition.  A dramatic improvement of up to 1260% was seen when the openings from the crawlspace into the home were sealed off.

    The collection of air samples confirmed that the air exchange between the crawlspace and the interior of the home was the root cause for the observed elevated spore counts.

     

     

     

     

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    How a crawlspace impacts indoor air quality

    How a crawlspace impacts indoor air quality

    How a crawlspace impacts indoor air quality

    How a crawlspace impacts indoor air quality

    This image illustrates how air moves through you home!

    this article will help you understand how a crawlspace impacts indoor air quality of your home.  Air moves in and out of your home via pathways and typical gaps in insulation and construction that are not sealed.  This shows how a crawlspace impacts indoor air quality.  As energy efficiency increases, air exchange decreases resulting in less fresh air coming into you home!  Which is responsible for having stale air in your home.  This is why we suggest every home have an ERV.  See our article on ERV’S.

    How a crawlspace impacts indoor air quality!

    So if you have an understructure in your home, you can bet that it is in some way impacting your indoor air quality.  This is really an easy fix.  Under structure fans, sealing off openings will fix this problem.  Crawlspaces can have a dramatic impact on air samples as this one Santa Barbara couple found out when selling their home when it killed their multi million dollar sale!  See our article on inaccurate air samples. 

     

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    Do I need air tests during my mold inspection?

    Do I need air tests during my mold inspection?

    Do I need air tests during my mold inspection? The answer on the first time inspection is typically no!  Air tests are valuable tools that an industrial hygienist (mold inspector) can use.  If you don’t take air samples how do you know?  The answer is simple as well as complex.   But in essence, if you FIND a problem during your inspection, there isn’t much reason to spend money to find out what you already know.  Further if there are design or construction defects in  your home, poor ventilation, maybe even something as simple as a front load washing machine having mold in the door gasket, these things will ALL through off air sample results.  Even something as benign as cutting the grass before you take the outdoor sample will cause the outdoor sample to have very high readings which will skew the analysis when comparing to the indoor air sample counts.  Some issues with air samples can be:

    • Results and conclusions are subjective- most people (even laboratories) don’t understand how to accurately compare indoor and outdoor spore counts and read the results-
    • Conditions impact results-  Typically and indoor sample is compared to an outdoor sample and the comparison determines the “issue” or lack thereof inside the room.  If it is windy, or there is old wood, lots of foliage or  other atmospheric conditions that may exist these can all cause the “control” (outdoor sample to be in accurate).  This outdoor sample is what you use to contrast with the indoor sample to make a determination.
    • Data is interpreted and NOT pass fail-  non-viable Air samples (which represent 98% of all air samples collected) are interpreted.  They are not empirical. So there is some individual who is making a subjective judgement on many things that impact the labs ability to actually read the slide from the sample.
    • Collection methods can impact results- Depending upon where the control sample (outdoor sample) is taken could dramatically impact its result and thereby making the interior sample comparison inaccurate.  This is a huge problem
    • False positives/False negatives-  Design and construction defect such as openings that allow air from under the home to enter the home can dramatically impact the spore counts inside of the home.  See our article on how a crawlspace impacts your home for more information on this.
    • Cost a lot of money and only tell you what you should already know

    Do I need air tests during my mold inspection?

    Do I need mold tests during my inspection?

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    Do I need air tests during my mold inspection?

    Taking air samples is the default for companies who do inspections and don’t know how to do a comprehensive site investigation.  It is the “easy way out”  The logic is that if it isn’t in the air, it isn’t there is foolish!  The answer is to perform a complete physical examination and moisture analysis.  IF there is mold found, remove it plain and simple!  Don’t be fooled into thinking that you have a GREAT deal because you get air samples.  Worse yet, what happens if you take air samples and they are positive?  What do you fix?  THIS IS NOT what a competent mold investigation should tell you.[/one-half]

     GET ANSWERS NOT QUESTIONS

    Do I need air tests during my mold inspection?  Some of the issues with air samples can be:

    • Results and conclusions are subjective-  With air samples an indoor sample is compared to an outdoor sample.  Concentrations of various types of spores are compared as are total counts.  However, conditions greatly skew these results.  Circumstances like wind, debris on the slide and personal bias impact how results are gathered and interpreted.   While air samples can be useful, they should NOT be relied upon to make a decision either way.
    • Conditions change from moment to moment-  We have participated in over 40,000 inspections many of them with air samples.  One common theme of all of the samples we have collected is that results vary widely from moment to moment.  We have seen rooms that have mold literally coated on the walls from floor to ceiling as thick as Christmas Tree flocking and have had the air tests come up NEGATIVE.  We have seen other circumstances where air tests are positive and there is nothing wrong at all.  Air tests are tools but they should not substitute for a good, comprehensive physical inspection by someone who specializes in mold investigation.

    Air tests should not be taken in a home that has a raised foundation or crawlspace!

    Homes that have an understructure or crawlspace have openings which afford air exchange between the crawlspace and the interior rooms/floor above.  In a Duke University study, they concluded that in a typical home with a crawlspace, as much as 70-80% of the air inside the home has passed through the crawlspace!.  ALL crawlspaces are not good.  There is bacteria, mold and all sorts of stuff present in almost every crawlspace.  Why would you want to breath air from your crawlspace? you shouldn’t.  But this is why if you have a crawlspace, taking air samples inside of a home, will likely only tell you that mold spores (present in EVERY crawlspace) are coming into the home via pathways from electrical, plumbing conduits and other openings into the interior that are not sealed.

    Here are some examples of openings that allow air exchange in a typical home

    Do I need mold tests during my inspection? Do I need mold tests during my inspection? Do I need mold tests during my inspection?

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